Almost all countries have laws and mechanisms in place for environmental impact assessment, and about a third of them have guidelines for strategic environmental impact assessment. Both figures represent an increase from the situation 5 years ago. Many countries are integrating biodiversity into land use planning mechanisms. Brazil has promoted ecological-economic zoning processes at the federal, state and municipal levels, as well as for some watersheds. South Africa has completed a national spatial biodiversity assessment and is integrating biodiversity into spatial planning and economic development at the municipal level in the North-West and Western Cape provinces. It took 16 years to ratify the World Heritage Convention and the CITIES Conventions, which were first ratified in the 1970s, to be ratified by more than 100 countries. However, the Kyoto Protocol was first ratified in 1998 and took only five years to reach the same point, and the Paris Agreement (2016) received 121 ratifications in the first year. The adoption of international environmental agreements by country has accelerated over time. Assessment data from lists of threatened species and changes in the status of threatened species can feed into several other international environmental agreements. For example: This category is intended to encompass agreements related to efforts to conserve, manage, conserve and protect natural resources, natural systems and wilderness, or to promote sustainable development. The coding terms used for INCLUSION are as follows: The World Trade Organization participated in the EMA negotiations due to the trade impact of the agreements. The organization has trade and environmental policies that promote the protection and preservation of the environment.
The aim is to reduce trade barriers and coordinate trade-related measures with environmental policy.  Since multilateral environmental agreements protect and preserve the environment, they can contribute to the easing of trade restrictions.  WTO principles are based on non-discrimination, free trade by removing barriers to trade and fair competition, and multilateral environmental agreements have been rejected because they are not consistent with WTO principles. The WTO cooperates with and implements more than 350 MEAs worldwide. [Citation needed] Most of the agreements concern five key countries [which ones?] are committed to improving the environment and free trade.  WTO Members are required by law to comply with the negotiated removal of trade barriers.  However, conflicts have arisen due to trade restrictions.  The use of renewable energy sources and the reduction of CO2 emissions are common objectives of environmental agreements. They can also be indicators of a country`s major environmental changes. Between 1990 and 2015, for example, the United States increased the contribution of renewables to energy production by 27% and reduced per capita CO2 emissions by 21%.
A signature is not the last step. Ratification by the State`s governing body is required before countries participate fully in international agreements. Although a signature is interpreted as an obligation to proceed with full ratification, this is not always the case. The policy surrounding an MEA is determined by the participating countries. The United Nations and the World Trade Organization are important intergovernmental organizations for the drafting and implementation of agreements. This category and subcategories are intended to cover agreements related to the regulation of lakes and rivers. In most cases, agreements for the protection of freshwater resources are referred to by the name of the water body concerned, with little precision as to the environmental aspect protected. I assumed that the word « protection » of a river or lake includes the protection of the environment. In other cases, however, I have used the preamble to distinguish the protection of freshwater resources from agreements concerning rivers or lakes for navigation purposes only. The coding terms used for INCLUSION are as follows: The term environment is defined broadly.
Some agreements include a number of environmental protection measures, while others are very specific. The draft database on international environmental agreements divides agreements into the following environmental categories: This category and its subcategories are intended to encompass all agreements aimed at protecting or managing human interactions with plant and animal species. It covers all agreements related to fish and fisheries management as well as all agreements related to agriculture (but excluding agreements on raw materials). The coding terms used for INCLUSION are as follows: country representatives can accept and sign the terms of an international agreement on behalf of their government, making their country a signatory. The European Union (EU) also has the power to sign international treaties and, in addition to the countries in them, it is often also a party to environmental agreements. Canada`s multilateral environmental agreements include air, biodiversity and ecosystems, chemicals and waste, climate change, environmental cooperation, sea and oceans, and meteorology.  Canada took an initiative because of the diversity of the country`s natural resources, climate and populated areas, all of which can contribute to environmental impacts. The models by Barrett (1997, 1999), Eichner and Pethig (2014) and Nordhaus (2015) formalize equity linkages as exogenous trade sanctions imposed on non-IEA participants, without modelling the endogenous choice of trade policy by governments or the conclusion of trade agreements.
Therefore, in my opinion, the conceptual picture offered by these models is incomplete and leaves some important questions unanswered: perhaps the first international environmental agreement related to the protection of wild animals was the Convention for the Protection of Birds in the Context of Agriculture, signed in 1902 by 11 European countries to prohibit capture, the killing or sale of certain species during the breeding and migration season. Trade-restrictive measures were explicitly included in the Migratory Birds Treaty negotiated in 1916 between the United States and Great Britain to protect birds that migrate between the United States and Canada. This treaty prohibited or regulated trade in many species of birds at the time of the active trade in birds and their feathers. Similar agreements with other countries followed. Another early example of international cooperation in nature conservation is the Convention on the Protection of Nature and Species in the Western Hemisphere, adopted in 1940 and entered into force in 1942 and which included controls on international trade in protected animals and plants. Recently, there has been considerable debate about whether it makes sense to use trade policy to encourage participation in global BAIs. In the AEA presidential speech in 2015, Nordhaus advocated for tariff sanctions against countries that do not participate in global climate agreements (Nordhaus, 2015). The basic idea is to link cooperation on « public goods », which suffers from serious free rider problems, to cooperation on « club property », where the benefits of cooperation can be largely excluded. Other scientists who have formally explored this idea include Barrett (1997, 1999) and Eichner and Pethig (2014).To the International Environmental Agreement (IEA) are signed treaties that regulate or manage human influence on the environment to protect it. To be considered international, the treaty must be intergovernmental; Bilateral agreements exist between two governments, and multilateral agreements exist between more than two.
In 2002, the EAC Summit of Heads of State and Government decided that the EAC should negotiate regional and multilateral issues as a whole. The draft framework for joint participation and implementation of regional and multilateral environmental agreements (MAAs) has been finalized. .